Type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is also known as insulin-dependent diabetes. It is a disease in which there is insufficient glycemic control. Type 2 diabetes is the type diabetes that is most frequent. Every 9 out of 10 diabetes patients is type 2. Insulin secretion is not properly regulated, while with type 1, the cause of the disease precisely is the lack of insulin.
After a meal, the blood sugar levels in the blood rises, so start with healthy subjects specific cells of the pancreas to secrete insulin, resulting in drop of blood sugar levels.
In type 2 diabetes, however, the insulin receptor become insensitive, and therefore the body behaves as if the insulin could not be released into the bloodstream.
As a result, blood sugar does not fall to baseline. In addition, unhealthy diet and inadequate life style can make a significant contribution even our genetic code.
More details about type 2 diabetes
Diabetes is one of the most common diseases in the world (2.8% of the world population is sick). 80-90% of all patients with diabetes is type 2. The disease usually develops after age 40, usually about 55 years. The number of cases grows each year. Scientists predict that in 15 years the number of patients will be doubled. Differences in the world are large, such as some Indian tribes have a high frequency of diabetes and in some parts of Africa, the incidence is low. The differences are at the expense of different genetic backgrounds and environmental influences.
The reason for the development of type 2 diabetes operation and effect of insulin is reduced in cells. This can be expressed in three levels:
The irregular secretion of insulin from the pancreas,
As the resistance of the cells to insulin,
Irregular liver glucose secretion.
Why is there a decrease in insulin activity is not entirely clear. Genes play an important role, since the incidence of the disease among identical twins nearly complete. In addition to genetic causes, there are other risk factors that cause type 2 diabetes.
These include obesity (over fat tissue in the body, the cells are more resistant to the effects of insulin), lack of physical activity, Family of diabetes, diabetes in pregnancy and prediabetes. This is the situation when it comes to increased levels of blood glucose, but not yet high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes.
Signs and symptoms of the disease are at first sight can be very specific. It may take several years before it a patient diagnosed with the disease. Symptoms of diabetes resulting from hyperglycemia, which means that the increased level of blood sugar. These symptoms include increased thirst and frequent urination, extreme hunger, weight loss, fatigue, visual disturbances and wounds heal very slowly.
Complications of type 2 diabetes develops over a longer period. The earlier the disease is detected, the lower the risk of complications. Complications include cardiovascular disease (atherosclerotic coronary artery disease, heart attack and high blood pressure), nerve damage (neuropathy – patients experience tingling, numbness, burning or pain), kidney damage (end condition also can cause kidney failure, to be treated by transplantation), eye damage (also cause blindness), damage to the foot (leg amputation necessary), osteoporosis and Alzheimer’s disease.
The detection of the disease, as always, begins with the exact history of the patient’s problems. The doctor will be with the description of the problems that diabetes is rapidly suspicion. As evidence of the disease should be conducted blood tests that show elevated levels of blood sugar. The test most commonly made incriminating oral glucose tolerance, which measures blood sugar after eating a specific amount of glucose.
Prevention of type 2 diabetes
Healthy Diet – Your menu should be varied and made according to your taste. Eating several small meals instead of a few rich. Meals to meet their daily energy needs and no more than that. The daily needs can evaluate your normal weight (height in cm – 100, women are 10% of it) is multiplied by 32, if you can do the physical work, with 40 for moderate work and 48 for heavy physical labor.
Diet should include plenty of fruits, vegetables and fiber, which slows the absorption of carbohydrates. Alcohol should be avoided because it is rich in calories, inhibits glucose production in the liver and increases the risk of excessive reduction of blood sugar or hypoglycemia.
Physical activity – try to be active, so the oznojite at least 30 minutes a day on most days of the week. Thus, prioritize aerobic activities in which you can make long-term load (cycling, brisk walking, running, swimming, etc.).
Maintenance of normal body weight – to maintain a normal body weight, or. excessive weight loss helps to prevent the onset and slow the development of disease. It is particularly important that changes in diet and physical activity comprehensive and transfer to your everyday life.
Detailed instructions on nutrition, physical activity and weight maintenance can be obtained from your personal and family medical. On request and at your request, you can also refer to the appropriate workshop, where you can get a set of knowledge and practical skills related to healthy lifestyle. In addition to these measures, so it is important to consider measures to assist in the normalization of pressure and fat metabolism.
The treatment of type 2 diabetes
Therapy of type 2 diabetes include, first under the action of such prevention. If these are not enough, you need to resort to medication. Many patients require insulin treatment.
All actions in maintaining glucose levels in most normal blood plasma. Both can be prevented or. delay the development of acute and chronic complications of diabetes.
Measuring the concentration of glucose in the blood can be carried out once a day or several times a week, depending on your plan and course of treatment in the past (current control). The measurements were performed with portable meters, requiring only a drop of blood from finger and therefore are convenient.
Some patients may achieve and maintain control of diabetes with proper diet and regular exercise, and normalization of body weight. When this is not enough, you need to resort to medication that helps.
We distinguish between several groups of drugs
Biguanides (e.g. metformin.) – Slow absorption of glucose from the gastrointestinal tract, inhibit glucose production in the liver to the new, increased sensitivity of muscle cells to insulin and glucose uptake in muscle cells , reduced appetite (the drug of choice for patients with type 2 diabetes and overweight weight does not cause hypoglycemia).
Sulfonylurea derivatives (Sulfonylureas, npr.glibenklamid, glimepiride and newer analogues, sulfonylureas such for example repaglinide, nateglinide.) – Working in the pancreas and increase beta cell sensitivity to glucose and therefore secretion insulin; glucose concentration is mostly normalize metabolic syndrome as a result of increased secretion of insulin often induced, even worse, making it inevitable to measure the change in lifestyle.
Glitazones (thiazolidinediones also known as, for example, pioglitazone, rosiglitazone.) – Increase the sensitivity of the insulin-dependent tissues to insulin.
Inhibitors of alpha-glucosidase (e.g., acarbose, miglitol.) – Which acts on enzymes in the small intestine (glucoamylase, saharazo, maltazo), which are responsible for the degradation of carbohydrates, which is an important step before absorption.
The net effect of inhibition of these enzymes is reduced and glucose uptake slowed; intact sugars increase incretin secretion called GLP-1 increases insulin secretion from the beta cells; Similar effects can be achieved only when the consumption of foods rich in fiber.
Despite all the great action comes primarily in the later stages of the disease “beta cell exhaustion” and the inability to produce enough insulin. Therefore, also in type 2 diabetes, many patients require insulin therapy as part of.
How to test for diabetes?
You cannot really test for diabetes. You can only measure blood sugar levels often and see if there are major spikes in your blood sugar levels. That does not indicate diabetes just right away. Several testings are needed in order to do this.