Most of the identified nutrients (vitamins A, C, zinc, etc.) play a roll in glucose metabolism and diabetic care. In addition to the vitamins and minerals there are over 200 identified phytonutrients with hypoglycemic effects. In practical terms, this means a diabetic person has to take several supplements daily to get the maximum benefit. In this presentation I focus only on the most important vitamins and minerals for diabetics.

Evaluating the Safety and Efficacy of Therapeutic Nutrition for Weight Loss

How do we know that a vitamin or mineral supplement will help us? How do we know how much to take? Can we get all the nutrients we need from food? How do we know that supplements are safe? These are all very difficult questions. Most of us are used to prescribing and taking synthetic drugs, and we have many unconscious expectations that derive from that experience. We must consider how supplements are different from synthetic drugs, and examine whether some of our expectations may be challenged in this new arena. A related, but distinct, concern, is the quality and purity of supplements. At the time of this writing, the supplement industry in the United States is self-regulated, which presents complex problems for physicians and consumers. This page is focused on the deeper issues of safety and efficacy. With diabetes and blood sugar levels, these factors are really important.

Fruits and veggies in heart tape


Glucosamine sulfate, and the related supplement chondroitin sulfate, are often used by people suffering from joint pain. Glucosamine is used by our bodies to form the cartilage of our joints. Taking glucosamine capsules can supply us with the reserves we need to build up cartilage. It may take several weeks, but glucosamine does reliably improve the pains of arthritis.

However, glucosamine is a type of sugar. It effects the way muscles uptake glucose. It is thought to have a negative effect on insulin resistance. Numerous rodent studies of intravenous glucosamine show increased insulin resistance. Early studies of humans were small, contradictory, and also based in intravenous injections, not oral capsule use.


Normal blood sugar level means that the levels are not too high, neither too low. A normal blood sugar level is between 4 – 6 mmol/l. If this level is reached we are talking about high blood sugar level. Similarly, if the level is below we are talking about low blood sugar level. Let discuss implications a little bit more in detail.

What is normal blood sugar level?

Body needs fuel for energy and this fuel is sugar (carbohydrates). It is similar to car where car needs gasoline. For a human organism to operate properly you need sugar. Normal blood sugar level is 4 mmol/L to up to 6 mmol/L. If these levels are reached you can begin to experience symptoms. For blood sugar to return to normal insulin needs to be secreted into blood. With diabetics this is a problem as insulin cannot be created anymore (diabetes type 1), or because organism, due to an error, developed resistance to insulin (so called insulin resistance) which prevents insulin to perform its action (to lower blood sugar levels). So diabetics are depended on insulin (or other means of lowering / increasing the blood sugar levels).

What happens if blood sugar levels cannot return to normal?

Severe symptoms may occur. These are dizziness, faintness, coma and death. Be careful and always pay attention to what your body is saying to you. Make sure you always maintain normal blood sugar level. Consult a professional who can tell you how you can achieve that. Never trust all information on the Internet, as the data might be out of date.

Threshold values:

  • low blood sugar level: below 4 mmol/L;
  • normal blood sugar level: 4-6 mmol/L;
  • high blood sugar level: above 6 mmol/L;

These values are only valid in fasting state (on an empty stomach, if you’re wondering what fasting state means).

Further more, glucose (a simple sugar) will influence your levels severely. There are other types of foods (with low glycemic index) which will not influence your blood sugar levels so much. These foods have the so-called low GI – it means that food releases sugar in slowly (when digested in the stomach). To avoid large spikes, and to maintain a normal blood sugar level, always consume foods with lower GI, or switch to Atkins diet (this diet does not include simple sugars and therefore is easier on your body and your blood sugar levels). You can read more about Atkins diet on this website:


The Atkins Diet is a popular low-carbohydrate eating plan created in 1972 by cardiologist Robert C. Atkins. The Atkins Diet restricts carbs (carbohydrates) while emphasizing protein and fats. The Atkins Diet has several phases for weight loss and maintenance, starting out with a very low carbohydrate eating plan. The Atkins Diet, formally called the Atkins Nutritional Approach, has been detailed in many books and is credited with launching the low-carb diet trend.


If you’re still wondering what is a normal blood sugar level please refer to beginning of this article and read the definitions again. Pay attention to your health. Educate yourself!

I consider myself a pretty well controlled Diabetic. Yes, I have my slips (everyone PWD does) but my high and low episodes are enormously outnumbered by my numbers that are within “acceptable” control limits.

If this were not the case, I would say that my excessive lows have caused me to lose my sensitivity to highs and lows but for as long as I can remember, low blood sugars had to be really low for them to effect my thinking and functioning in any way. I am constantly trying to see signs of my blood sugar dropping into the 60s or below but to date, unless I am testing my blood to see a number in the 60’s or high 50’s those numbers may as well be 80’s and 90’s.

Don’t get me wrong, I am happy that I am able to function just as well at 58mg/dl as I am at 128mg/dl but from everything I have learned and know about Diabetes, this should not be the case. Am I an exception to the rule?

Maybe, but if I am, why? This is the “Why Me” question that run through my head. Not the why was I the one who got Diabetes, “Why Me” question.

Egg cholesterol does not effect the harmful, most athrogenic, LDL-cholesterol particles in the blood, according to research in Metabolism. This study and others show that to prevent cardiovascular disease, people should eat a diet low in saturated and trans fatty acids, rather than focusing on dietary cholesterol, according to a press release.

High cholesterol

Most Americans are unaware that high cholesterol is mostly produced naturally in the body, according to a survey from Harris Interactive Survey and sponsored by Merck/Schering Plough Pharmaceuticals with Mended Hearts, even though the respondents reported having the condition. Seventy-seven percent said they believed food they eat contributes the most to high cholesterol.

Participants did have a general sense that the lower their cholesterol the better. Most said they were aware there are national guidelines for what their overall cholesterol numbers should be, but only 27% of those people actually knew that the optimal level for LDL cholesterol is less than 100 mg/dl. Mended Hearts is a national non-profit organization affiliated with the American Heart Association.

Symptoms of Low Blood Sugar

Symptoms of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia symptoms) vary from person to person and even from day to day. As a diabetes educator I recommend that people taking insulin, or insulin producing pills, know the symptoms of low blood sugars. Informing friends and family about symptoms of low blood sugar is also an option as they can help recognize and treat hypoglycemia.

  • Urgency to eat or hungry
  • Sweating
  • Shaking or trembling
  • Generalized weakness
  • Tiredness or drowsiness
  • Racing heart or palpitations
  • Dizziness
  • Headache
  • Anxiety
  • Difficulty concentrating or confusion
  • Short-term clumsiness or decreased co-ordination
  • Can’t find the “right” word; drawing “blanks”
  • Seeing bright lights/vision changes (not a typical symptom)
  • Nausea (not a typical symptom)
  • Tingling of lips, face or legs if walking (not a typical symptom)
  • Combative, belligerent, argumentative (this is likely severe hypoglycemia)
  • Loss of consciousness (severe hypoglycemia)
  • More on Hypoglycemia Symptoms

    Some folks with diabetes have hypoglycemia symptoms but their glucose meters show they’re not low.

    This can happen if you’ve had high glucose levels for some time and suddenly drop into lower ranges. Sort of like living in Fiji where it’s hot and moving to Calgary, Canada for the summer. It seems cold in comparison. Of course, once you’ve lived in Calgary a while, the summers start to feel enjoyable again. Trust me. So for blood sugars, this means that your body will eventually become accustomed to the healthier lower blood sugars and will start to fell better there.

    If having hypoglycemia symptoms always try to verify the low blood sugar with a finger stick glucose test. The values for lows are listed here. Hypoglycemia should be treated immediately so it does not progress to some of the more serious low blood sugar symptoms. Some people without diabetes have hypoglycemia symptoms but may not have low blood sugar levels as explained under “reactive hypoglycemia”.

    Symptoms of low blood sugar during the night:
    Hypoglycemia can also happen while you are sleeping. Symptoms of low blood sugar during the night are:

  • Crying out or have nightmares.
  • Awaking with damp pajamas, sheets or pillowcase from sweating.
  • Feeling tired, irritable, or confused when you wake up.
  • Waking for no reason (although this may also be sleep apnea – check your blood sugar if you awake early).
  • Difficulty waking.
  • Unexplained high blood sugars in the morning
  • These could all be symptoms of low blood sugar after it has occurred. In other words, unrecognized hypoglycemia during sleep. Discuss with your health care providers. They might suggest you test before bed, at 0300, then 0600 or when waking.

    If you have diabetes and experience mild hypoglycemia more than once a week, or more often than your physician advises, call your health care provider. You should contact your physician or health care team immediately after experiencing a severe low sugar requiring someone else’s help.

    As found on

    The simple and quick answer is NO.


    As for fat, it is necessary to clarify a few things. Of course, our body needs some fat as fuel for backup just in case, if you ever run out of fuel rapid in the form of sugar. But this does not mean that it should be the best source of fat to eat food of animal origin. There are also a vegetable fat. I do not mean those processed in the form of oils, but on seeds and nuts, the best source for fat people. Research has shown that in each cell is a small furnace, which burns off excess fat.

    These ovens are called mitochondria. Scientists have wondered why mitochondria in case of problems with the fat cells do not perform their duties? Precisely because of failure of mitochondria cells become non-responsive to insulin. Research has shown that in case of excessive consumption of fat, that is, diets rich in food products of animal origin in the genes trigger mechanism that extinguishes mitochondrial function. When a man is meat, fish, eggs, milk and cheese, he shuts the natural system of burning surplus fat in the cells, which in turn lead to fatness cells, thus causing a problem with diabetes.

    It’s not only the diet, you should exercise too!

    The reasons we should not look only in the diet, but in our nature. The cells still function the same as before a million years ago, when there was no food in abundance. The body therefore essentially wants to help and off the mitochondria that you can fill up their fat reserves, but the problem arises when a man enjoys such food every day. Cells that are unable to distinguish, therefore, but only loading and loading excess fat, which brings us to the long-term costs of health and life. People are fatty diet became victims of their own natural defense system. To solve this dilemma, the only solution is the transition to a 100% plant-based diet that allows us all the necessary nutrients for a long, healthy and vital life. [14]

    In order to convince scientists that there was perhaps a coincidence, they continued with their experiments and always got the same answer. More people as they put on a purely plant-based diet, the more they also welcomed. As soon as they returned back to the old diet rich in fat, the disease rapidly repeated. So for diabetics is no other way than to forever change your way of eating. As it is not as boring as you think, and some fear, but very interesting and delicious. It was also found that, for best results, must be eliminated all processed vegetable fat, that is, the use of vegetable oils is undesirable, since it hinders the healing process cells. Vegetable oils are therefore not part of a healthy plant nutrition. But in small quantities desired seeds and nuts. [15]

    Scientists have also discovered that vegetable diet that contains no fat, also helps other serious patients.

    The results of studies conducted by Dean Ornish, have shown that low-fat, plant nutrition extremely useful as cardiovascular patients who, because of his condition had surgery on clogged arteries. After a year of consuming such diets are completely healed, blood vessels, they are purified by itself. This is another great example of how success can be healthy vegetable diet in the treatment of the most serious diseases of our time. If a timely tackle changes, there is almost no incurable diseases. [16]

    After all the research known to us can say with certainty that it is possible to avoid all the costly operations and even premature death, if, of course, timely care for lifestyle change, based on wholesome low-fat vegetable diet and exercise.

    Dr. Neal Barnard in his book recommends three steps to begin treatment of diabetes [17]:

  • With its menu, remove all animal meat.
  • Reduce the use of vegetable oils to a minimum.
  • Give priority to foods that have a low glycemic index (GI).
  • Focus on eating whole grain cereals, pulses, vegetables and fruits. Avoid meat, poultry, fish, eggs and dairy products (yogurt, cheese, ice cream, butter, various creams, etc.). Also remove all oils, margarine, mayonnaise and other fatty refined products, even if the plant. Avoid fried foods. Do not eat avocados, olives and spreads from any nuts or seeds. Given fruits there are no limits, except for watermelon and pineapple, which have significantly higher GI than the rest of the fruit. Do not cook the potatoes, because the GI increases, preferring to eat cooked or sweet potato, which is the best alternative. Avoid processed cereal and vegetable product in general, always choose wholesome products that have not been previously processed. The most important thing is that with such a diet, there are no restrictions as it can eat so much that you’re full. Program offered by Barnard, no starvation and restriction. The man who adopts this program and it strictly adheres to several weeks, reporting significant successes. Therefore, it is worth a try. [18]

    In conclusion, we can say that because of such successes recorded by physicians in the field of plant nutrition, it is true to say that the future is vegan. We have no other choice.

    Type 2 diabetes

    Type 2 diabetes is also known as insulin-dependent diabetes. It is a disease in which there is insufficient glycemic control. Type 2 diabetes is the type diabetes that is most frequent. Every 9 out of 10 diabetes patients is type 2. Insulin secretion is not properly regulated, while with type 1, the cause of the disease precisely is the lack of insulin.

    After a meal, the blood sugar levels in the blood rises, so start with healthy subjects specific cells of the pancreas to secrete insulin, resulting in drop of blood sugar levels.

    In type 2 diabetes, however, the insulin receptor become insensitive, and therefore the body behaves as if the insulin could not be released into the bloodstream.

    As a result, blood sugar does not fall to baseline. In addition, unhealthy diet and inadequate life style can make a significant contribution even our genetic code.

    More details about type 2 diabetes

    Diabetes is one of the most common diseases in the world (2.8% of the world population is sick). 80-90% of all patients with diabetes is type 2. The disease usually develops after age 40, usually about 55 years. The number of cases grows each year. Scientists predict that in 15 years the number of patients will be doubled. Differences in the world are large, such as some Indian tribes have a high frequency of diabetes and in some parts of Africa, the incidence is low. The differences are at the expense of different genetic backgrounds and environmental influences.


    The reason for the development of type 2 diabetes operation and effect of insulin is reduced in cells. This can be expressed in three levels:

  • The irregular secretion of insulin from the pancreas,
  • As the resistance of the cells to insulin,
  • Irregular liver glucose secretion.
  • Why is there a decrease in insulin activity is not entirely clear. Genes play an important role, since the incidence of the disease among identical twins nearly complete. In addition to genetic causes, there are other risk factors that cause type 2 diabetes.

    These include obesity (over fat tissue in the body, the cells are more resistant to the effects of insulin), lack of physical activity, Family of diabetes, diabetes in pregnancy and prediabetes. This is the situation when it comes to increased levels of blood glucose, but not yet high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes.


    Signs and symptoms of the disease are at first sight can be very specific. It may take several years before it a patient diagnosed with the disease. Symptoms of diabetes resulting from hyperglycemia, which means that the increased level of blood sugar. These symptoms include increased thirst and frequent urination, extreme hunger, weight loss, fatigue, visual disturbances and wounds heal very slowly.

    Complications of type 2 diabetes develops over a longer period. The earlier the disease is detected, the lower the risk of complications. Complications include cardiovascular disease (atherosclerotic coronary artery disease, heart attack and high blood pressure), nerve damage (neuropathy – patients experience tingling, numbness, burning or pain), kidney damage (end condition also can cause kidney failure, to be treated by transplantation), eye damage (also cause blindness), damage to the foot (leg amputation necessary), osteoporosis and Alzheimer’s disease.

    Disease diagnosis

    The detection of the disease, as always, begins with the exact history of the patient’s problems. The doctor will be with the description of the problems that diabetes is rapidly suspicion. As evidence of the disease should be conducted blood tests that show elevated levels of blood sugar. The test most commonly made incriminating oral glucose tolerance, which measures blood sugar after eating a specific amount of glucose.

    Prevention of type 2 diabetes

    Healthy Diet – Your menu should be varied and made according to your taste. Eating several small meals instead of a few rich. Meals to meet their daily energy needs and no more than that. The daily needs can evaluate your normal weight (height in cm – 100, women are 10% of it) is multiplied by 32, if you can do the physical work, with 40 for moderate work and 48 for heavy physical labor.

    blood sugar levels testings

    Diet should include plenty of fruits, vegetables and fiber, which slows the absorption of carbohydrates. Alcohol should be avoided because it is rich in calories, inhibits glucose production in the liver and increases the risk of excessive reduction of blood sugar or hypoglycemia.

    Physical activity – try to be active, so the oznojite at least 30 minutes a day on most days of the week. Thus, prioritize aerobic activities in which you can make long-term load (cycling, brisk walking, running, swimming, etc.).

    Maintenance of normal body weight – to maintain a normal body weight, or. excessive weight loss helps to prevent the onset and slow the development of disease. It is particularly important that changes in diet and physical activity comprehensive and transfer to your everyday life.

    Detailed instructions on nutrition, physical activity and weight maintenance can be obtained from your personal and family medical. On request and at your request, you can also refer to the appropriate workshop, where you can get a set of knowledge and practical skills related to healthy lifestyle. In addition to these measures, so it is important to consider measures to assist in the normalization of pressure and fat metabolism.
    The treatment of type 2 diabetes

    Therapy of type 2 diabetes include, first under the action of such prevention. If these are not enough, you need to resort to medication. Many patients require insulin treatment.

    All actions in maintaining glucose levels in most normal blood plasma. Both can be prevented or. delay the development of acute and chronic complications of diabetes.

    Measuring the concentration of glucose in the blood can be carried out once a day or several times a week, depending on your plan and course of treatment in the past (current control). The measurements were performed with portable meters, requiring only a drop of blood from finger and therefore are convenient.

    Some patients may achieve and maintain control of diabetes with proper diet and regular exercise, and normalization of body weight. When this is not enough, you need to resort to medication that helps.

    We distinguish between several groups of drugs

    Oral agents:

    Biguanides (e.g. metformin.) – Slow absorption of glucose from the gastrointestinal tract, inhibit glucose production in the liver to the new, increased sensitivity of muscle cells to insulin and glucose uptake in muscle cells , reduced appetite (the drug of choice for patients with type 2 diabetes and overweight weight does not cause hypoglycemia).

    Sulfonylurea derivatives (Sulfonylureas, npr.glibenklamid, glimepiride and newer analogues, sulfonylureas such for example repaglinide, nateglinide.) – Working in the pancreas and increase beta cell sensitivity to glucose and therefore secretion insulin; glucose concentration is mostly normalize metabolic syndrome as a result of increased secretion of insulin often induced, even worse, making it inevitable to measure the change in lifestyle.

    Glitazones (thiazolidinediones also known as, for example, pioglitazone, rosiglitazone.) – Increase the sensitivity of the insulin-dependent tissues to insulin.

    Inhibitors of alpha-glucosidase (e.g., acarbose, miglitol.) – Which acts on enzymes in the small intestine (glucoamylase, saharazo, maltazo), which are responsible for the degradation of carbohydrates, which is an important step before absorption.

    The net effect of inhibition of these enzymes is reduced and glucose uptake slowed; intact sugars increase incretin secretion called GLP-1 increases insulin secretion from the beta cells; Similar effects can be achieved only when the consumption of foods rich in fiber.

    Despite all the great action comes primarily in the later stages of the disease “beta cell exhaustion” and the inability to produce enough insulin. Therefore, also in type 2 diabetes, many patients require insulin therapy as part of.

    How to test for diabetes?

    You cannot really test for diabetes. You can only measure blood sugar levels often and see if there are major spikes in your blood sugar levels. That does not indicate diabetes just right away. Several testings are needed in order to do this.

    With today’s technology, testing is as simple as providing a urine sample. No more painful or invasive swabs. Just stop by the student health center or talk to a health care professional about taking the test. You should have your results within a few days.
    If you test positive, your health care professional will give you a prescription for antibiotics. Make sure to take all of the prescribed medication. As for the cost, that all depends on your school’s student health center and if you choose to go through insurance. For details, call your student health center. If you’re guessing about the confidentiality of it all, don’t. There are laws that protect patient/doctor privacy.


    Don’t be embarrassed to talk to your sexual partner about having an STI. If you are infected, talk to your partner as soon as possible, so he or she can get tested and treated. Keep in mind, between 60 and 73% of young adults diagnosed with an STI become infected with the same STI within a year — more often than not, by the same partner. Therefore, if you receive treatment and your partner does not, you may become infected again.


    It should go without saying, but the facts speak for themselves: NOT EVERYONE PRACTICES SAFE SEX. So, be sure to use condoms every time you have sex. But remember, condoms do not provide complete protection from all STIs. Sores and lesions can be present in areas not covered by a condom, which can result in transmission of infection. And don’t forget to talk with your partner about STIs. If you think you may be infected, avoid sexual contact and see a health care professional immediately.